By Neta C. Crawford
The accidental deaths of civilians in conflict are too frequently brushed off as unavoidable, inevitable, and unintended. And regardless of the easiest efforts of the U.S. to prevent them, civilian casualties in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan were a standard characteristic of the USA' wars after 11th of September. In Accountability for Killing, Neta C. Crawford makes a speciality of the motives of those many episodes of foreseeable collateral harm and the ethical accountability for them. The dominant paradigm of criminal and ethical accountability in struggle this present day stresses either purpose and person responsibility. planned killing of civilians is outlawed and overseas legislation blames person infantrymen and commanders for such killing. someone soldier will be sentenced existence in criminal or demise for intentionally killing even a small variety of civilians, however the huge scale killing of dozens or maybe 1000s of civilians can be forgiven if it was once unintentional--"incidental"--to an army operation. The very legislation that protects noncombatants from planned killing could let many episodes of unintentional killing. less than foreign legislation, civilian killing will be forgiven if it was once unintentional and incidental to a militarily helpful operation.
Given the character of latest battle, the place army organizations-training, and the alternative of guns, doctrine, and tactics-create the stipulations for systemic collateral harm, Crawford contends that putting ethical accountability for systemic collateral harm on contributors is lost. She develops a brand new conception of organizational ethical supplier and accountability, and indicates how the U.S. army exercised ethical supplier and ethical accountability to minimize the prevalence of collateral harm in America's latest wars. certainly, whilst the U.S. army and its allies observed that the conception of collateral harm killing was once inflicting it to lose help within the battle zones, it moved to a "population centric" doctrine, placing civilian security on the middle of its method.
Trenchant, unique, and varying throughout safety reviews, overseas legislations, ethics, and diplomacy, Accountability for Killing will reshape our figuring out of the ethics of up to date conflict.
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Extra resources for Accountability for Killing: Moral Responsibility for Collateral Damage in America's Post-9/11 Wars
Soldiers have taken an oath to risk their lives but they are, rightly, risk averse. If we ask soldiers, for either pragmatic reasons—because we want their hearts and minds “population centric” strategy to succeed—or for moral reasons, to protect noncombatants at potentially greater risk to themselves, then we must do so consciously, and with an understanding and acknowledgment of their potential and actual sacrifice. If protecting civilians does not have to entail increased risk to US soldiers, then soldiers should know that as well.
Int roduc ti on 25 Part II focuses on understanding moral responsibility for collateral damage at the level of those with primary responsibility for war—soldiers, commanders, and military organizations. Because the paradigm understanding of moral responsibility focuses on individuals and intentions, I had to first untangle individual from collective moral responsibility for systemic collateral damage. Thus, I begin the analysis of individual moral responsibility by reviewing cases where the moral responsibility for killing noncombatants is ostensibly clear—the deliberate killing of civilians by US soldiers in the era when protecting noncombatants became a priority.
Al Qaeda had deliberately targeted civilians in New York and Washington in September on the view that they were not innocent. By contrast, the United States said it would avoid harm to civilians and instead would liberate Afghans from the Taliban. Yet, I wondered why there were seemingly many instances “collateral damage” killing of Afghan civilians in 2001 and 2002. Was the United States, as the Pentagon argued, conducting a war with relatively few civilian casualties? Were those deaths unavoidable?
Accountability for Killing: Moral Responsibility for Collateral Damage in America's Post-9/11 Wars by Neta C. Crawford