By Hwei P. Hsu
1. indications and Spectra 2. sign Transmission and Filtering three. Amplitude Modulation four. attitude Modulation five. electronic Transmission of Analog signs 6. likelihood 7. Random approaches eight. functionality of Analog communique structures within the Presence of Noise nine. functionality of electronic conversation platforms within the Presence of Noise 10. optimal Detection eleven. details and Channel skill 12. mistakes regulate Coding
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In a spread spectrum communication system users employ signals which occupy a significantly larger bandwidth than the symbol rate. Bandwidth spreading is accomplished before the transmission through the use of a code that independent of the transmitted data. The same code is used to demodulate the data at the receiving end. OK OK Spreading Code 1 Spreading Code 1 ME ME Spreading Code 2 Figure 8. Example of CDMA working principle Spreading Code 2 45 RADIO ACCESS TECHNIQUES 01101001100101100110 Transmitter User input 10011 +1 Receiver BS User output 10011 MS 1001 Code 1001 Code –1 User input 1 0 0 1 1 Spreading code 1001 1001 1001 1001 1001 Spread data 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 0110 (a) (b) Received data 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 Received data 0110 1001 1001 0110 Correct code 1001 1001 1001 1001 1001 Wrong code 0101 0101 0101 0101 0101 1111 0000 0000 1111 1111 0011 1100 1100 0011 0011 1 0 0 1 1 ?
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All the users with codes that do not match the code of the desired users are rejected. Figure 11 shows concept of FH CDMA system. In a FH method, a pseudorandom sequence is used to change the radio signal frequency, across a broad frequency band in a random fashion. A spread-spectrum modulation implies that the radio transmitter frequency hops from channel to channel in a predetermined but pseudorandom manner. The RF signal is dehopped at the receiver end via frequency synthesizer controlled by a pseudorandom sequence generator synchronized to the transmitter’s pseudorandom sequence generator.
Analog and Digital Communications by Hwei P. Hsu