By Aron L. Crowell
`This pioneering research is definitely illustrated with images of the excavation, plans of the village, and ancient illustrations of individuals and the panorama. an immense acquisition for educational libraries, particularly the place there are courses in historical past, anthropology, and archaeology. top department undergraduates and above.'
Choice, June 1998
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Additional resources for Archaeology and the Capitalist World System: A Study from Russian America
For example, historic accounts describing Qikertarmiut seasonal movements between winter villages and summer hunting and fishing camps reflect a relatively mobile, open pattern of land use that probably did not obtain prior to contact. A marked decline in Qikertarmiut house size after contact is another possible index of population loss and social change. Lightfoot et al. (1991) suggest that population aggregation of Porno and Miwok occurred in the vicinity of Fort Ross as a response to the Russian presence, and this pattern may be identifiable at other Russian posts.
Technologically sophisticated watercraft and weapons were crucial elements of the coastal way oflife. Single and double hatch qayaqs (kayaks) were used for hunting, and large, open skin boats (angiaqs) served for intervillage travel, transportation of goods, and long-distance warfare. Subsistence gear consisted offishhooks, fish spears, and a wide assortment of specialized hunting weapons such as sea otter arrows, bird and seal darts propelled with throwing boards, poisoned darts for whaling, killing lances, and floats.
The hunting of whales, which was carried out from kayaks using poison-tipped darts, was embedded in a ritual complex that included the curation of whalers' corpses in secret caves (Crowell 1994b; Desson 1995). The sociopolitical organization of the Qikertarmiut at the time of contact is not known in detail. Although larger temporary alliances were formed, the usual level of political integration was probably on the scale of the "society" or "local group," consisting of several hundred to perhaps 1,000 people living in one or more villages under a single headman (Townsend 1980).
Archaeology and the Capitalist World System: A Study from Russian America by Aron L. Crowell